Ayurvedic Terms and Their Meanings
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Literally means ‘fire,’ Agni is the Hindu god of fire, divine knowledge, and sacrifice. He represents the energy and spark of life that is present in all beings.
In ayurvedic medicine, this term refers to a form of energy that regulates digestion, metabolism, and the immune system. A balanced agni can help lessen stress, improve mental focus, and promote better health.
One of the five yamas, ahimsa generally refers to compassion and universal love. It is the lack of any violence whether in both action and thought. It also refers to forgiveness and self-sacrifice. The term ahimsa is from the root word himsa which means ‘‘to cause pain’’and the prefix a- meaning ‘‘’’.
More commonly known as the third eye chakra, the ajna chakra represents the subconscious mind. It directly links an individual to one’s intuition thus enabling them to receive insights from the past and the future as well as to establish communication with the world. The ajna chakra can be strengthened through spiritual practices such as yoga and meditation.
Ama is a Sanskrit word that can be translated as ‘undigested’ or ‘raw.’ It refers to the wastes or toxic substances that can cause imbalances and illnesses. The accumulation of ama in small amounts is a part of food digestion. However, these should be thoroughly expelled from the body to prevent it from doing any harm.
Anahata chakra is more commonly known as the heart chakra. It can be found in the in the center of the chest area and promotes love, calmness, compassion, balance, charity to others, sincerity, and psychic healing. It connects the lower and upper chakras and serves as a link between spriritual and earthly aspirations.
The term aparigraha is derived from the prefix a- which means‘‘not’’ as well as the words pari which means ‘‘on all sides’’ and graha which means ‘’to take’‘. One of the five yamas, it is the principle of letting go anything that one does not need and taking only what is necessary. It is the virtue of ‘non-attachment’.
Traditionally, asana is defined as a ‘comfortable seat.’ It is the third stage in Patanjali’s system of ashtanga and refers to one’s general positioning, seating, and physical posture in yoga.
Asana is important in yoga because it is believed to keep the body in good condition. Asana practice can help prepare an individual for meditation as it can improve one’s discipline and focus.
The Sanskrit word ashtanga means ‘eight-limbed’This yoga consists of eight aspects or limbs as described in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras.
The term Ashtanga Yoga is also used to refer to a modern form of physical yoga practices involving a series of specific movement sequences. In this style of yoga, the individual is given the freedom to go through the six series (or levels) of yoga exercises at their own pace.
Asteya is one of the five yamas and a form of self-restraint in Indian philosophy. It is the virtue of non-stealing or not obtaining something that belongs to another through force or deceit. It is a practice that applies to thought and action as one should neither steal nor have any intention of it.
Bhastrika is a type of breathing technique and pranayama. It is also known as bellow breath because the diaphragm pumps the air in a way that is similar to the movement of the bellows used by blacksmiths. It is a cleansing practice that is performed to improve energy and clear air passages.
Brahmacarya is a term composed of the words Brahman which means ‘‘Divine Creator’’ and charya which means ‘‘to follow’’. It is one of the five yamas and is usually associated with marital fidelity, celibacy, sexual restraint and chastity. It is the principle of using one’s energy for a purpose that is higher than external desires.
Chakra is derived from the Sanskrit word cakra which can be translated as ‘wheel.’ It pertains to each of the seven points in the body which govern a specific emotional and physiological function. The seven primary chakras are Sahasrara (Crown Chakra), Ajna (Third-Eye Chakra), Visuddha (Throat Chakra), Anahata (Heart Chakra), Manipura (Solar Plexus Chakra), Svadisthana (Sacral Chakra) and Muladhara (Root Chakra).
In Hindu mythology, Chandra is the lunar god. His name can either be translated as ‘moon’ or ‘illustrious.’ He is also linked with sensitivity, fertility, softness, and emotion. To harness the lunar god’s soothing energy, an individual may perform Chandra Namaskara or Moon Salutation. This vinyasa rejuvenates the body and soothes the mind.
Charaka Samhita is a Sanskrit text that primarily discusses traditional Ayurveda medicine. Otherwise known as Compendium of Charaka, it is also considered as one of the oldest surviving Hindu texts. It describes the lifestyle that is needed to maintain good health and touches on a wide range of medical topics such as illnesses, hygiene and treatments.
The term dharma is derived from the root word dham meaning ‘‘to uphold’’. It refers to the cosmic law or the principle which governs the universe.
Each individual has their own dharma. Living in accordance to one’s own dharma would enable an individual to serve their role in the universe and, ultimately, achieve enlightenment.
The term dhauti comes from the root word dhoo which means ‘‘to wash’’. In general, dhauti can be translated as purification and is one of the shatkarmas discussed in Hatha Yoga. It is a cleansing exercise that promotes respiratory and digestive health. Phlegm removal and general detoxification are some of the benefits of dhauti practice.
The seventh aspect of ashtanga yoga, the term dhyana can be literally translated as meditation. It is only practiced after completing preparatory exercises as it requires deep mental focus. When performed together with dharana and samadhi, a state in which the mind is fully detached from earthly bindings or samyama could be achieved.
The term dosha is derived from the Sanskrit word dosa which means ‘disease’ or ‘fault.’ It pertains to bodily humor or energy in the body which dictates mental, physical, and emotional characteristics.
The three types of doshas are vata, kapha and pitta. It is believed that good health could be achieved by maintaining harmony among the three doshas.
Gunas are attributes that are used to understand substances in nature. It is generally believed that both living beings and non-living objects possess gunas but at different proportions.
There are three types of gunas. The first guna is called tamas which means darkness and death. Passion, energy and birth are associated with rajas while sattva pertains to goodness, light and purity.
The term guru is a Sanskrit word which means ‘‘venerable’’ or ‘‘heavy’’. It usually refers to an enlightened teacher or instructor who is knowledgeable and worthy of devotion. A guru is a spiritual mentor who plays an important role in an individual’s quest for enlightenment.
Hasta is a Sanskrit word which means ‘upper extremity’ or ‘hands.’ It may refer to hasta mudra, which is a symbolic hand gesture to regulate the flow of prana and improve mental focus during meditation.
Hatha Yoga is a type of yoga which promotes flexibility, equilibrium, and strength. It is derived from the Sanskrit words ha which means ‘‘sun’’ and tha which means ‘‘moon’’.
Literally means ‘‘force’’, this practice uses asana and pranayama to obtain harmony between the universe and an active body. Once this is achieved, physiological health, physical strength, and emotional well-being is manifested by an individual.
The term indriya literally means ‘‘belonging to Indra’’. It may refer to one of the spiritual, sensory or phenomenological faculties. In meditation, an individual views the world through jnanendriyas or the sense faculties and reacts through the karmendriyas or action organs. The mana or processing mind is influenced by what it perceives through indriyas.
Isvara-pranidhana is derived from the words Isvara which translates to ‘‘Supreme God’’ and pranidhana which translates to ‘‘devote’’. It is the act of devoting one’s self to the Divine and allowing its wisdom to guide one’s life. This spiritual practice is manifested through various ways such as meditation, daily actions and prayer.
The term Jiva can be translated alternately as ‘‘individual soul’’ or ‘‘immortal living substance’’. An element of a high spiritual nature, it is usually described as eternal, indestructible, unchanging and infinite. According to Hindu philosophy, the primary aim of the jiva is to obtain the pure love of the Divine and liberate itself from the material world.
Jnana is a Sanskrit word which means ‘wisdom’ or ‘spiritual knowledge.’ It refers to knowledge that is gained through meditation and cannot be separated from absolute reality or brahman.
The main aim of jnana meditation is to free an individual from deception and worldly concerns. Because of this, it is believed that jnana yoga can help one to achieve spiritual awareness.
Karma pertains to any physical or mental action that an individual makes and its consequences on one’s present and future lives. It is a concept that is directly related to the idea of reincarnation and rebirth. It is believed that an individual could liberate one’s self from karma through the practice of yoga.
Kapha is a type of dosha that is made from earth and water and is associated with the winter season. It is the energy which helps the body to create new cells and recover from illnesses. An individual with kapha as their dominant dosha is said to be grounded, calm and sensual.
Kriya is a Sanskrit word which means ‘completed action.’ It pertains to a set of sound mantras, breathing exercises and physical poses which are aimed to have a specific outcome such as opening energy channels in the body.
Each kriya has specific instructions. The sequence of each exercise aims to bring about direct and subtle mental and physical changes in an individual.
The term manipura is derived from the Sanskrit words mani which means ‘gem’ and pura which means ‘city.’ Otherwise known as the Solar Plexus Chakra, the manipura chakra is associated with transformation and provides courage to take a step towards change. It is also believed to attract prana in the universe into an individual.
The term mantra can be literally translated as ‘‘tool of thought’’. It refers to a sacred sound, word or phrase which has psychological or spiritual power. It is usually chanted during meditation to encourage the mind to focus and enter a higher level of consciousness. Each mantra has its unique sound and vibration.
Mudra is a Sanskrit word which means ‘mark,’ ‘gesture,’ or ‘seal.’ It pertains to the ritualistic and symbolic gestures that are used in practicing yoga. Mudras have numerous types such head, lock, postural and perineal gestures but the hand positions practiced alongside yoga seating poses are the most common. Mudras can aid in unblocking energy channels and psychic centers which have direct effect on an individual’s mind and body.
The term muladhara is derived from the words mula which means ‘root’ and adhara which means ‘base.’ More commonly known as the root chakra, the muladhara chakra promotes spiritual nourishment and development. It is the starting point of the three primary nadis or psychic channels and can be found at the base of the spine.
Nadi is a Sanskrit word which means ‘‘channel’’, ‘‘tube’’ or ‘‘flow’’. It refers to the pathways where energy flows in the body. There are three main psychic channels – Ida, Sushumna and Pingala nadi. Keeping nadis clear and strong is important to let the energy flow freely and to maintain good health.
Nara is a Sanskrit word which means human. It refers to the eternal spirit which is present in the universe and is always accompanied by the divine Narayama.
In Hindu mythology, Nara-Narayama are twin brothers who are incarnations of Vishnu. Their story was told in Bhagavata Purana in which they were said to have worked to preserve righteousness or dharma.
Nara is also used to refer to a ‘psychic dissociation’, or a condition where there is mal-alignment of the pancha kosha.
The term nasarga is a Sanskrit word which can be translated as ‘‘nose tip’’. Nasarga drishti is a technique that is performed to enhance focus and concentration. It is a practice in which one is required to stare and focus on the tip of the nose for no more than 3 minutes.
Niyama is a Sanskrit word which means ‘positive observances’ or ‘duties.’ The second limb of ashtanga yoga, it pertains to the recommended practices in yogic philosophy. It includes saucha (cleanliness), Isvara-pranidhana (devoting the self to the Divine), santosha (contentment), svadhyaya (study of self) and tapas (discipline)
Niyamas are considered to be an application of the ethical code in yoga. They can create a positive internal environment as well as promote clarity, inner strength and discipline to a person which can lead to spiritual enlightenment.
Pada is a Sanskrit word that can be translated into ‘foot.’ It pertains to specific poses which require holding and stretching the foot. Most of the yoga poses with this term aim to improve the health and flexibility of one’s spine. One example of such pose is the beginner’s pose Padangusthasana which can help tone back muscles, provide relief from stress, and improve digestion.
Pancha Jnanendriyas refers to the five sensory organs. The term is derived from the Sanskrit words pancha which means ‘‘five’’, jnana which means ‘‘awareness’’ and indriya which means ‘‘organ’’. It refers to the organs that are used for perceiving and includes ghrana (nose), srotra (ears), caksu (eyes), tvak (skin) and rasana (tongue).
The term karmendriya literally means organ of action. It refers to the faculties that are used by an individual to interact with objects in the physical world. The karmendriyas include pada (feet) for movement, vak (mouth) for speech, pani (hands), payu (rectum) for excretion and upastha (genitals) for reproduction.
Pancha klesha refers to the five things which hinder spiritual growth. Literally translated as five afflictions, it is believed that pancha klesha is the origin of all the miseries and problems in life. It includes avidya (ignorance), abhinivesha (clinging to life), asmita (egoism), dwesha (aversions) and raga (cravings).
The term pancha kosha is derived from the words pancha which means ‘‘five’’ and kosha which means ‘‘sheath’’It refers to the five layers which surround the human being. These are annamaya kosha (food sheath/physical body), pranamaya kosha (energy sheath), manomaya kosha (mental sheath), vijnayanamaya kosha (intellect sheath), and anandamaya kosha (bliss sheath, or sheath of cosmic consciousness).
Pitta is one of the three doshas. It is characterized as light, hot, spreading, sharp, bitter, and intense. It is the energy which regulates temperature, metabolism as well as transformations of the mind and body. People with pitta as their dominant dosha are strong-willed, decisive, dominant, determined, and ambitious.
Prakriya is a Sanskrit word which means process. It refers to the routine, practices, and exercises that is performed by an individual in order to avoid getting distracted by external influences and reclaim one’s composure.
Pratyahara is derived from the words prati which means ‘‘away’’ and ahara which means ‘‘nourishment’’. It is the fifth aspect of ashtanga yoga and helps an individual to transition one’s focus from external stimuli to the inner self. It helps improve mental concentration and, once mastered, an individual would no longer be easily distracted by external forces.
The term prakrithi comes from the Sanskrit words pra which means ‘‘beginning’’ and kriti which means ‘‘creation’’. It refers to the primal power or the essential, natural needs of the individual. Prakrithi encompasses all of the primal urges which man shares with his animal and reptilian brethren. These are the powerful, subconscious drives which are part of the DNA programming in the ancient (animal) parts of the brain, which science refers to as mammalian/reptilian complex; all the basic urges for sex, food, power, dominance, aggression, survival, the herd instinct, hierarchical status, play instinct, emotional drives, etc.
The term prana is derived from the Sanskrit words pra which means ‘movement’ and na which means ‘constant.’ Prana can be alternately defined as ‘energy,’ ‘life force’ or ‘vital principle.’
Prana pertains to the energy that is manifested by all the beings in the universe. Prana, when flowing freely through nadis or energy channels, contributes to one’s good health. However, it may cause emotional or physical issues when it is blocked.
The term pranayama is a combination of two Sanskrit words prana (‘breath’ or ‘life force’), and ayama (‘control’ or ‘extension’). Hence, pranayama may mean ‘extension of life force’ or ‘breath control.’ In yoga, pranayama is the practice of regulating one’s breathing through exercises and certain techniques. Pranayana is the fourth limb in Patanjali’s system of ashtanga. It helps prepare the mind for meditation.
Rasa is a Sanskrit word which can be translated as ‘essence,’ ‘sap,’ or ‘fluid.’ It refers to the emotions arising from human experiences. The nine basic emotions are sringara (love), vibhatsa (self-pity), hasya (humor), bhayanaka (anxiety), adbhuta (wonder), karuna (sorrow), shanti (calmness), vira (confidence), and raudra (anger). The energy from these emotions influence one’s physical and spiritual health.
Sadhana refers to a process, discipline, or service that helps an individual attain inner peace by surrendering one’s ego. This grounding spiritual discipline aids a practitioner to establish a ritual association to the Divine and is a highly valued aspect of yoga. Meditation, chanting and prayer are some examples of sadhana.
Sahasrara is a Sanskrit word which means ‘thousand petals.’ It can be found at the crown of the head which is why it is also referred to as the crown chakra. It is the highest primary chakra and is associated with pure consciousness. It also serves as an individual’s link to the universe and Divine.
Sama is a Sanskrit word which can alternately mean ‘smooth,’ ‘unchanged’ or ‘same.’ It is the quality of equanimity and calmness of mind despite environmental stressors. To achieve this state, a person should learn to gain power over the mind.
This term may also pertain to Sama yoga which is a certain yoga uses kriyas, mantras and Hatha yoga practice to promote spiritual growth.
Samadhi is the final aspect of ashtaga yoga. It comes from the Sanskrit words sama which means ‘together’ and dhi which means ‘mind.’ It refers to the ultimate state of mental focus that can be reached through meditation. Samadhi also denotes spiritual enlightenment and is the prerequisite to nirvana.
Samskara refers to the psychological imprints that are left behind by a person’s experiences. They are considered as an individual’s innate dispositions as well as the root of one’s impulses. Samskaras reside in a person’s subconscious and stores one’s hidden expectations. It is closely associated with the concept of reincarnation and considered as an evidence of rebirth.
Samskrithi in simple terms means ‘culture.’ It refers to that collective ethos of a group of people, a society or a culture, that has evolved into a pattern of behaviour which regulates, refines and sublimates, or elevates the basic prakrithi (primal urges) that man shares with creatures (animals) lower than him in the chain of beings. Samskrithi implies discipline, dignity and a nobility of life. The greatness of a culture is measured by its capacity to restrain, refine, transcend and make sublime the primordial urges of man.
Svadhyaya, or the practice of studying the self, is one of the niyamas. The term is derived from the root words sva which means ‘‘self’’ and adhyaya which means ‘‘lecture’’. The practice of svadhyaya allows a person to learn more about the higher consciousness in the universe as well as one’s role in it.
Sanskrit is an ancient language used to write numerous ancienttexts (such as the Vedas, Puranas, etc.) and continues to be used as a language of scholarship and religion today. It is also referred to as the ‘‘language of yoga’’ as most concepts and terminologies are derived from this dialect.
Santosha comes from the Sanskrit words sam which means ‘‘completely’’ and tosha which means ‘‘contentment’’. Considered as the second niyama, it is the absence of desire for what others possess or self-contentment. This practice can help an individual to develop a better relationship with one’s self as well as be liberated from desires and cravings.
Satya is a Sanskrit word which can be translated as ‘‘truth’’. One of the five yamas, it requires an individual to be truthful and honest in speech, action and thought. Satya plays an important role in maintain the harmony and balance in the universe. When present, everything in the universe functions as it should be.
One of the five niyamas, sauca is a sanskrit word which literally means ‘‘cleanliness’’, ‘‘purity’’ and ‘‘clearness’’. It requires an individual to maintain cleanliness of both mind and body as well as remain pure in actions and speech. It also encourages an individual to keep the surroundings clean to improve mental awareness and concentration.
Shishya is a Hindu practice in which a spiritual mentor or guru enlightens a disciple by means of verbal teachings. In this tradition, a guru imparts the knowledge that they gained, to their students through different stories and songs. It requires the guru’s honesty and the student’s respect and obedience.
The Sanskrit word sthiti can be translated in many ways, but it mainly refers to the permanence or steadiness of one’s mind. It is the state in which one is free from mental distractions and is enjoying inner peace. Samadhi or liberation is the highest form of sthiti.
Sukha is derived from the Sanskrit words su which means ‘good’ and kha which means ‘space.’ It can be alternately defined as ‘ease,’ ‘happiness’ or ‘bliss.’ It is usually contrasted with preya which denotes a temporary state of pleasure whereas sukha is a long-lasting state of deep happiness.
Surya is the god of sun and health in Hindu mythology. He represents courage, willpower, and vitality. He is also considered as the spiritual heart and creator of life in the world. Asanas that are performed as a sign of devotion to the sun are called Surya Namaskara or Sun Salutation.
The svadisthana chakra also referred to as the sacral chakra, is associated with pleasure, creativity, and enjoyment. The term svadisthana is derived from the words sva which translates to ‘one’s own’ and adisthana which translates to ‘home.’ Found in the lower abdomen, it is said to regulate one’s emotions and relationships.
The term tantra is a Sanskrit word which can either be translated as ‘‘woven together’’ or ‘‘leading principle’’. Tantra yoga is different from other traditions since it only aims to balance the human instincts and not thoroughly renounce it. It originated from the worship of Shiva and Shakti which are deities of static and dynamic principles.
Tapas refer to spiritual exercises which require solitude, intense self-discipline and deep meditation. It is derived from the root word tap which can be translated to ‘‘the heat needed for birth’’. It denotes the inner fire which is required for an individual’s spiritual rebirth. Attaining the true self or atman is the primary goal of practicing tapas.
Yogic gazing or trataka is one of the shatkarmas. Trataka is a Sanskrit word which can be translated as ‘to gaze.’ This practice helps the mind to disconnect from external stimuli and allows an individual to find inner peace. It can also help to strengthen the eye muscles, promote emotional stability, and improve willpower.
The term ashram is derived from the root word srama which could be translated as ‘a step toward liberation.’ It refers to places that are conducive for spiritual activities like meditation, religious instruction, and yoga. Generally, it is a name given to spiritual residences such as monasteries and hermitage.
Vajra is a club with a spherical head at one end. It is said to be a weapon of Indra and has become a symbol of spiritual power and spirituality. The term vajra is a Sanskrit word that can be alternately translated as ‘diamond’ or ‘thunderbolt.’
The term may also refer to a certain yoga discipline. In vajra yoga, spirituality is discovered through meditation and proper breathing techniques instead of physical exertions.
Vata is one of the three primary energies which controls the body’s physiological functions. This dosha is said to regulate breathing, blood flow and excretion. A combination of ether and air, it is the primary dosha, as the other two are unable to move without it.
Vasana is a Sanskrit word that can be translated as ‘‘abiding’’ or ‘‘dwelling’’. It refers to the karmic impressions that affect an individual’s behavior in current situations. It also pertains to the current knowledge that the present consciousness forms from memories. This concept states that a person is inclined to adopt a certain behavior due to imprints left by past experiences.
The term veda is derived from the root word vid which means ‘‘to know’’. Therefore, veda can be translated as ‘‘wisdom’’ or ‘‘knowledge’’. is the Vedas are a collection of ancient teachings, rituals, hymns and poems that is believed to have been passed on verbally by ancient scholars. It is the foundation of the primary schools of Hindu philosophy, including yoga.
The term vibhagha is a Sanskrit word that can be translated as ‘division’ or ‘section.’ It alludes to the three sections of the lungs and vibhagha pranayama refers to the regulation of one’s breathing within each of these regions. Known as the complete yoga breath, this exercise is the foundation of good health and proper breath control.
Vikrithi is derived from the prefix vi- which means ‘‘after’’ and the root word kruti which means ‘‘creation’’. It refers to the current state of the three doshas and how it manifests through an individual’s body and mind. Vikrithi essentially describes the state of affairs where prakrithi, the normal and natural ‘drives,’ has become distorted (not natural), exemplified by such things as sexual deviancy or deranged eating habits, etc.
Vipaka is a Sanskrit term which can be translated as ‘reactionary effect’ or ‘maturation.’ It refers to the end-product of metabolism from which doshas are formed. The madhura vipaka creates kapha, katu vipaka produce vata, and amla vipaka forms pitta.
In Buddhist tradition, vipaka refers to the consequences of an individual’s actions. It is closely associated with the concept of karma.
Virya is one of the attitudes that is needed to be able to attain a state of inner peace or samadhi. Literally means ‘enthusiasm,’ it refers to the energy that keeps an individual on a focused path towards liberation. This term is also associated with strength, willpower, heroism, courage, manhood, determination, and semen.
As the name implies, the throat chakra or visuddha chakra is found in the throat area. The term visuddha is derived from the root word suddhi which can be translated as ‘pure.’ This chakra is associated with self-expression and creativity. When unblocked, it is said to have the ability to enhance one’s communication skills.
The term yama can be translated as ‘rein’ or ‘bridle.’ It is the first limb or aspect of ashtanga yoga and refers to the restraints that one must observe to lead a more peaceful life.
Yama practice can help an individual to strengthen one’s character, improve interpersonal relationships, reduce bad karma and attain one’s spiritual goals. It includes ahimsa (non-violence), aparigraha (non-greed), satya (honesty), brahmacharya (celibacy) and asteya (non-stealing).
The term yoga was derived from the Sanskrit word yuj, which can be translated as ‘to yoke.’ It alludes to the discipline’s goal of joining one’s body, mind, and spirit to attain freedom.
Yoga has numerous types and each discipline has their own focus and exercise. However, all of them have a similar starting point and the same end goal.
Yoga Marga literally means ‘the path of yoga’. It is called a razor’s edge path which would lead an individual towards the highest goal in life. It is said that only those with veerya or a warrior’s resolve could successfully tread on this path. Marga is a Sanskrit word which can be translated as ‘path’.
The Yoga Sutras is an ancient text of yoga comprised of just 196 aphorisms (sutras, or ‘threads’), describing Ashtanga yoga or the ‘eight limbs of yoga’. Believed to be the primary reference for ancient yoga philosophy, it outlines the eight fundamental practices which can lead an individual towards enlightenment. These aspects or limbs are yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi.
‘’‘’It is believed to be written by the sage Patanjali before 400 CE.
Bachman, Nicolai. The Language of Ayurveda. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing, 2006.
Lad, Vasant. The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1998.
Lad, Vasant. Textbook of Ayurveda Volume I: Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda. Albuquerque: The Ayurvedic Press, 2002.
Lad, Vasant. Textbook of Ayurveda, Volume II: A Complete Guide to Clinical Assessment. Albuquerque: The Ayurvedic Press, 2006.
Lad, Vasant. Textbook of Ayurveda Volume III: General Principles of Management and Treatment. Albuquerque: The Ayurvedic Press, 2012.
Pole, Sebastian. Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice. London: Churchill Livingston, 2006
Rai, Ram Kumar, trans. Shiva Svarodaya. Varanasi: Prachya Prakashan, 1997. Shiva Svarodaya: 36.
Welch, Claudia. The Secrets of the Mind: The Ten Channels Revealed. Big Shakti, 2005. PDF eBook.
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